Manual War Despatches: Indo–Pak Conflict 1965

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The next day, Pakistan retaliated, its air force attacked Indian forces and air bases in both Kashmir and Punjab. India's decision to open up the theatre of attack into Pakistani Punjab forced the Pakistani army to relocate troops engaged in the operation to defend Punjab. Operation Grand Slam therefore failed, as the Pakistan Army was unable to capture Akhnoor; it became one of the turning points in the war when India decided to relieve pressure on its troops in Kashmir by attacking Pakistan further south.

In the valley, another area of strategic importance was Kargil. Kargil town was in Indian hands but Pakistan occupied high ground overlooking Kargil and Srinagar-Leh road. However, after the launch of a massive anti-infiltration operation by the Indian army, the Pakistani infiltrators were forced out of that area in the month of August. The General's entourage itself was ambushed and he was forced to flee his vehicle.

A second, this time successful, attempt to cross the Ichhogil Canal was made over the bridge in the village of Barki, just east of Lahore. As a result, the United States requested a temporary ceasefire to allow it to evacuate its citizens in Lahore.

However, the Pakistani counterattack took Khem Karan from Indian forces which tried to divert the attention of Pakistanis from Khem Karan by an attack on Bedian and the adjacent villages. The thrust against Lahore consisted of the 1st Infantry Division supported by the three tank regiments of the 2nd Independent Armoured Brigade; they quickly advanced across the border, reaching the Ichhogil BRB Canal by 6 September.

The Pakistani Army held the bridges over the canal or blew up those it could not hold, effectively stalling any further advance by the Indians on Lahore. One unit of the Indian Jat Regiment , 3 Jat, had also crossed the Icchogil canal and captured [57] the town of Batapore Jallo Mur to Pakistan on the west side of the canal.

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The same day, a counter offensive consisting of an armoured division and infantry division supported by Pakistan Air Force Sabres forced the Indian 15th Division to withdraw to its starting point. Although 3 Jat suffered minimal casualties, the bulk of the damage being taken by ammunition and stores vehicles, the higher commanders had no information of 3 Jat's capture of Batapore and misleading information led to the command to withdraw from Batapore and Dograi to Ghosal-Dial.

The Indo-Pakistan War 1965

Dograi was eventually recaptured by 3 Jat on 21 September, for the second time but after a much harder battle due to Pakistani reinforcements. Their brief was simple. To hold the post and to keep Pakistan's infantry battalions from overrunning the post at bay. A company of 3 Guards with heavy mortar battery ordered to reinforce the RAC post at Munabao could never reach.

The Pakistani Air Force had strafed the entire area, and also hit a railway train coming from Barmer with reinforcements near Gadra road railway station. On 10 September, Munabao fell into Pakistani hands, and efforts to capture the strategic point did not succeed.

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On the days following 9 September, both nations' premiere formations were routed in unequal battles. India's 1st Armoured Division , labeled the "pride of the Indian Army", launched an offensive towards Sialkot. The Division divided itself into two prongs, was forced back by the Pakistani 6th Armoured Division at Chawinda and was forced to withdraw after suffering heavy losses of nearly tanks. The Pakistanis followed up their success by launching Operation Windup , which forced the Indians back farther.

Similarly, Pakistan's pride, the 1st Armoured Division, pushed an offensive towards Khem Karan , with the intent to capture Amritsar a major city in Punjab, India and the bridge on River Beas to Jalandhar. The Pakistani 1st Armoured Division never made it past Khem Karan, however, and by the end of 10 September lay disintegrated by the defences of the Indian 4th Mountain Division at what is now known as the Battle of Asal Uttar lit.

Approximately 97 Pakistani tanks were destroyed or abandoned, with only 32 Indian tanks destroyed or damaged. The Pakistani 1st Armoured Division less 5th Armoured Brigade was next sent to Sialkot sector behind Pakistani 6th Armoured Division where it didn't see action as 6th Armoured Division was already in process of routing Indian 1st Armoured Division which was superior to it in strength. The hostilities in the Rajasthan sector commenced on 8 September. Initially Pakistan Desert Force and the Hur militia followers of Pir Pagaro was placed in a defensive role, a role for which they were well suited as it turned out.

The Hurs were familiar with the terrain and the local area and possessed many essential desert survival skills which their opponents and their comrades in the Pakistan Army did not. Fighting as mainly light infantry, the Hur inflicted many casualties on the Indian forces as they entered Sindh. The Hurs were also employed as skirmishers, harassing the Indians LOC, a task they often undertook on camels.

As the battle wore on the Hurs and the Desert Force were increasingly used to attack and capture Indian villages inside Rajasthan. The war was heading for a stalemate, with both nations holding territory of the other. The Indian army suffered 3, battlefield deaths, while Pakistan suffered 3, The Indian army was in possession of Although the two forces had previously faced off in the First Kashmir War during the late s, that engagement was very limited in scale compared to the conflict. During the conflict, the PAF claimed it was out-numbered by around However, according to Sajjad Haider, the F did not deserve this reputation.

Being "a high level interceptor designed to neutralise Soviet strategic bombers in altitudes above 40, feet," rather than engage in dogfights with agile fighters at low altitudes, it was "unsuited to the tactical environment of the region. According to the pilot, he got separated from his formation due to a malfunctioning compass and radio. Sqn Ldr Saad Hatmi who flew the captured aircraft to Sargodha , and later tested and evaluated its flight performance, was of view that Gnat was no "Sabre Slayer" when it came to dog fighting. The two countries have made contradictory claims of combat losses during the war and few neutral sources have verified the claims of either country.

Thus disproving the IAF's claim of downing 73 PAF fighters, which at the time constituted nearly the entire Pakistani front-line fighter force. The two air forces were rather equal in the conflict, because much of the Indian air force remained farther east to guard against the possibility of China entering the war. Thus was a stalemate in terms of the air war with neither side able to achieve complete air superiority.

Despite this, Werrell credits the PAF as having the advantage of a "decade's experience with the Sabre" and pilots with long flight hours experience. One Pakistani fighter pilot, MM Alam , was credited with the record of downing five Indian aircraft in less than a minute, becoming the first known flying ace since the Korean War. The war witnessed some of the largest tank battles since World War II. At the beginning of the war, the Pakistani Army had both a numerical advantage in tanks, as well as better equipment overall.

Pakistan fielded a greater number and more modern artillery; its guns out-ranged those of the Indian artillery, according to Pakistan's Major General T. At the outbreak of war in , Pakistan had about 15 armoured cavalry regiments, each with about 45 tanks in three squadrons. The Indian Army of the time possessed 17 cavalry regiments, and in the s had begun modernizing them by the acquisition of AMX light tanks and Centurions.

The remainder of the cavalry units were equipped with M4 Shermans and a small number of M3A3 Stuart light tanks. There was also the 2nd Independent Armoured Brigade, one of whose three regiments, the 3rd Cavalry , was also equipped with Centurions. Despite the qualitative and numerical superiority of Pakistani armour, [91] Pakistan was outfought on the battlefield by India, which made progress into the Lahore-Sialkot sector, whilst halting Pakistan's counteroffensive on Amritsar ; [92] [93] they were sometimes employed in a faulty manner, such as charging prepared defences during the defeat of Pakistan's 1st Armoured Division at Asal Uttar.

After India breached the Madhupur canal on 11 September, the Khem Karan counter-offensive was halted, affecting Pakistan's strategy substantially. Pakistan claimed that Indians lost tanks at Chawinda. In contrast, both proved adept with smaller forces in a defensive role such as India's 2nd Armoured Brigade at Asal Uttar and Pakistan's 25th Cavalry at Chawinda.

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Naval operations did not play a prominent role in the war of Operation Dwarka , as it is known, is a significant naval operation of the war [98] [99] [] contested as a nuisance raid by some. Indian sources claim that it was not their intention to get into a naval conflict with Pakistan, and wished to restrict the war to a land-based conflict. The Pakistan Army launched a number of covert operations to infiltrate and sabotage Indian airbases. The daring attempt proved to be an "unmitigated disaster". Despite failing to sabotage the airfields, Pakistan sources claim that the commando mission affected some planned Indian operations.

As the Indian 14th Infantry Division was diverted to hunt for paratroopers, the Pakistan Air Force found the road filled with transport, and destroyed many vehicles. India responded to the covert activity by announcing rewards for captured Pakistani spies or paratroopers. India and Pakistan make widely divergent claims about the damage they inflicted on each other and the amount of damage suffered by them.

The following summarizes each nation's claims. There have been several neutral assessments of the losses incurred by both India and Pakistan during the war. Most of these assessments agree that India had the upper hand over Pakistan when ceasefire was declared. The war was militarily inconclusive; each side held prisoners and some territory belonging to the other.

In the fog of war-II | Pakistan Today

Losses were relatively heavy—on the Pakistani side, twenty aircraft, tanks, and 3, troops. Pakistan's army had been able to withstand Indian pressure, but a continuation of the fighting would only have led to further losses and ultimate defeat for Pakistan. Most Pakistanis, schooled in the belief of their own martial prowess, refused to accept the possibility of their country's military defeat by "Hindu India" and were, instead, quick to blame their failure to attain their military aims on what they considered to be the ineptitude of Ayub Khan and his government.

This time, India's victory was nearly total: India accepted cease-fire only after it had occupied square miles, though Pakistan had made marginal gains of square miles of territory. Despite the obvious strength of the Indian wins, both countries claim to have been victorious. The invading Indian forces outfought their Pakistani counterparts and halted their attack on the outskirts of Lahore, Pakistan's second-largest city.

By the time United Nations intervened on September 22, Pakistan had suffered a clear defeat. The superior Indian forces, however, won a decisive victory and the army could have even marched on into Pakistani territory had external pressure not forced both combatants to cease their war efforts. In three weeks the second Indo-Pak War ended in what appeared to be a draw when the embargo placed by Washington on U.

India, however, was in a position to inflict grave damage to, if not capture, Pakistan's capital of the Punjab when the cease-fire was called, and controlled Kashmir's strategic Uri-Poonch bulge, much to Ayub's chagrin. India won the war. It held on to the Vale of Kashmir, the prize Pakistan vainly sought. Although both sides lost heavily in men and material, and neither gained a decisive military advantage, India had the better of the war.

New Delhi achieved its basic goal of thwarting Pakistan's attempt to seize Kashmir by force. Pakistan gained nothing from a conflict which it had instigated. A brief but furious war with India began with a covert Pakistani thrust across the Kashmiri cease-fire line and ended up with the city of Lahore threatened with encirclement by Indian Army. Another UN-sponsored cease-fire left borders unchanged, but Pakistan's vulnerability had again been exposed.

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The Indo-Pak war lasted barely a month. Pakistan made gains in the Rajasthan desert but its main push against India's Jammu-Srinagar road link was repulsed and Indian tanks advanced to within a sight of Lahore. Both sides claimed victory but India had most to celebrate. Again India appeared, logistically at least, to be in a superior position but neither side was able to mobilize enough strength to gain a decisive victory. Conflict resumed again in early , when Pakistani and Indian forces clashed over disputed territory along the border between the two nations.

Hostilities intensified that August when the Pakistani army attempted to take Kashmir by force. The attempt to seize the state was unsuccessful, and the second India-Pakistan War reached a stalemate.